Developing organisational and financial models
for including non-formal sector qualifications
in National Qualifications Frameworks


Cedefop (2010), The development of national qualifications frameworks in Europe, Working Paper no 8.

Cedefop (2015), Analysis and overview of national qualifications framework developments in European countries. Annual Report 2014, Working Paper no 27.

Cedefop & ETF

Cedefop, ETF (2013), Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory: country cases from EU and ETF partner countries.

Cedefop, ETF, UNESCO (2013), Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory.

Cedefop, ETF, UNESCO (2015a), Global inventory of regional and National Qualifications Frameworks. Volume I: Thematic Chapters.

Cedefop, ETF, UNESCO (2015b), Global inventory of regional and National Qualifications Frameworks. Volume II: National and Regional Cases

International Labour Organization

Allais S., Raffe D., Young M. (2009), Researching NQFs: Some Conceptual Issues, Employment Working Paper no 44, ILO.

Dyson C., Keating J. (2005), Recognition of prior learning policy and practice for skills learned at work: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, United States, Skills Working Paper 21, ILO.

ILO (2010), The implementation and impact of National Qualifications Frameworks: Report of a study in 16 countries.

Strathdee R. (2010), The implementation and impact of the New Zealand National Qualifications Framework, ILO.

Tuck R. (2007), An Introductory Guide to National Qualifications Frameworks: Conceptual and Practical Issues for Policy Makers, ILO.

Young M. (2005), National qualifications frameworks : their feasibility for effective implementation in developing countries, Skills Working Paper no 22, ILO.


Blom R., Parker B., Keevy J. (2007), The recognition of non-formal and informal learning in South Africa. Country Background Report prepared for the OECD Thematic Review on recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning, South African Qualifications Authority.

NUOV (2007), Activity on recognition of non-formal and informal learning. Country background report Czech Republic, National Institute of Technical and Vocational Education.

OECD (2004), New Zealand Background Country Report - The Role of National Qualifications Systems in Lifelong Learning.

OECD (2007), Education and Training Policy Qualifications Systems Bridges to Lifelong Learning: Bridges to Lifelong Learning. (full version is not available on-line)


Allais S. (2014), Selling Out Education: National Qualifications Frameworks and the Neglect of Knowledge. Rotterdam-Boston-Taipei: Sense Publishers.

Bjørnåvold J., Coles M. (2007), Governing education and training; the case of qualifications frameworks. European Journal of Vocational Education and Training, No. 42/43, pp. 2003–2235.

Bohlinger S. (2008), Competences as the Core Element of the European Qualifications Framework. European Journal of Vocational Education and Training. No 42, pp. 96–112.

Bohlinger S. (2012), Qualifications frameworks and learning outcomes: challenges for Europe’s lifelong learning area. Journal of Social Work Education, Vol. 25, Issue 3, pp. 279–297.

Coles M. (2007), Qualifications frameworks in Europe: platforms for collaboration, integration and reform. A paper for the conference: Making the European Learning Area a Reality, 3-5 June 2007, Munich.

Coles M., Werquin P. (2009a), The Influence of Qualifications Frameworks on the Infrastructure of VET. In: International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work, D.R. Maclean, D. Wilson, eds. Springer Netherlands, pp. 439–452.

Coles M., Werquin P. (2009b), The role of national qualifications systems in helping to modernise vocational education and training systems, Modern Vocational Education and Training, Vol. 3, pp. 141–178.

Danowska-Florczyk, E., Debowski, H., Lasota, M., Poczmańska, A., Przybylska, B., & Slawinski, S. (2018). The Challenge of Adapting Existing Qualifications for Inclusion in the NQF: Lessons Learned from the Twinning Project in Macedonia. Level 3, 14(1), 4.

Ensor P. (2003), The National Qualifications Framework and Higher Education in South Africa: some epistemological issues. Journal of Education and Work. 16 (3), pp. 325-346.

European Commission (2010), European Qualifications Framework Series: Note 2. Added value of national qualifications frameworks in implementing the EQF.

ETF (2014a). Making better vocational qualifications. Vocational qualifications system reforms in ETF partner countries.

ETF (2014b). Quality assurance in vocational education and training. A collection of articles.

ETF (2006), A review of international and national developments in the use of qualifications frameworks.

French E. (2009), The NQF and its Worlds, SAQA.

Klapp C.J. (2003), National Qualifications Framework initiatives in Mexico. Qualifications and Standards: Harmonization and Articulation initiatives, SAQA.

Murphy, A., & Dębowski, H. (2018). Is Higher Education Ambivalent Towards Inclusion of Non-Formal Qualifications in National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs)?. In European Higher Education Area: The Impact of Past and Future Policies (pp. 547-568). Springer, Cham.

Sgarzi, M., & Dębowski, H., (2019), Including non-formal sector qualifications in National Qualification Frameworks: a challenging process. Training &Employment. Cereq.